Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid. This process is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items (e.g., crusts, dumplings), flatbreads, noodles, pastry, pizza, bread rolls, biscuits, cookies and similar items. This includes all kinds of breads or similar recipes made from maize, rice, sorghum, wheat, and other cereals or related crops used around the world.
In many parts of central India, people use the quick method of making an instant roasted dough ball or baati. In countries in the Sahel region of Africa, dough balls called aiysh or biya are made from sorghum or millet, and are ground and boiled. Flatbreads such as pita, lafa, lavash, matzah or matzo, naan, roti, sangak, tortilla, and yufka are made from dough and eaten in many parts of the world. Some flatbreads, such as naan and roti, use leavening agents; others, such as matzo, do not.
Leavened or fermented dough, made from dry ground grain cereals or legumes mixed with water and yeast, are used all over the world. Salt, oils or fats, sugars or honey and sometimes milk or eggs are also common ingredients in dough.
Fried dough foods are also common in many cultures.